What is oil?
Crude oil is a flammable liquid of oily consistency formed in the crust of the earth. It is found in the porous rocks of sedimentary origin penetrating sand, sandstone, limestone. Oil is known to be the most important natural resource in the world, without which the modern industry and the modern life is inconceivable.
Oil has been found already in ancient times, as under certain conditions oil comes up to the surface. Archaeological excavations at the Euphrates River showed the traces of oil production dated 4000 – 6000 years B.C.
Oil was used as a fuel, while bitumen – for the building and road construction. In Ancient Egypt oil was used for the embalming of bodies. In China oil was produced by drilling wells with bamboo. Oil was used to heat brine and, thus, extract salt.
History of the modern use of oil began in 1853, when the Polish scientist Jgnacy Lukasiewicz extracted kerosene from crude oil.
The first commercial oil well was drilled in Canada in 1858. Later large oil fields were found in the USA, Azerbaijan, Venezuela, the Middle East.
Up to the 70s of the XX century coal was the main source of energy. Later it was replaced with oil.
Meantime the largest oil producers in the world are the countries of the Middle East, America, and South Asia. Lithuanian oil reserves are very scarce.
What would happen if oil disappeared?
Unbelievable, but the modern life would stop if all of a sudden oil disappeared. Many still think that crude is being used for fuel only, however, that is not exactly the case. If oil was depleted suddenly, and no substitute was found, people's life would be reverted to the prehistoric times instantly. Without cosmetics, perfumes, footwear, cloths, power, transportation and other articles, life of contemporary people is inconceivable.
Therefore, the specialists of oil producing companies are looking for the methods, which would allow using the oil reserves for centuries. They explore and analyze new rocks, which could also contain oil.
Geologists and other scientists analyze different types of rocks and decide on whether they are perspective in terms of oil production. It is expected that the new technologies and new findings will make it possible for the oil reserves to continue for a long time.